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Information Technology Terms 2



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2 Part of the TCP/IP model that performs the same function as the transport layer in the OSI model.
5 Software that frames the customerís payload with the Frame Relay overhead information, including the first DLCI (data link connection identifier) address, to prepare it for delivery to the network.
6 Developed by Cisco to provide a robust protocol for rerouting within an autonomous system (AS); a type of IGP.
10 Set of routing protocols used within an autonomous system.
12 Table that the operating system uses to locate files on a disk; because a file may be divided into many sections that are scattered around the disk, the FAT keeps track of all the pieces.
14 Coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
15 Hardware used to enter and retrieve data from the system.
16 Early versions were actually floppy; today, they use hard 3.5 inch disk; also referred to as removable drive.
17 Businesses or organizations that provide consumers with access to the Internet and related services.
18 Service with standards and specifications designed to transmit data; some users have had success at transmitting voice.
20 Broad term that can refer to anything from mainframes to PDAs; any technology that moves information (voice, video, or data).
21 Non-profit corporation created to oversee Internet-related tasks previously performed for the U.S. Government by other organizations; tasks include managing the assignment of domain names and IP addresses, and introducing new generic top-level domain
22 Part of an IP address that is uniquely assigned by an administrator.
23 Network layer protocol provided with TCP/IP; connectionless, unreliable protocol that provides features for addressing, type or service specification, fragmentation and reassembly, and security.
24 Blending data into a carrier signal; a modem modulates data by converting it to audible tones that can be transmitted on a telephone wire, and demodulates received signals to get the data.
25 Protocol users interact with (by means of a browser) to access Web pages over an internet or intranet.
27 Unit of frequency; one hertz simply means one cycle per second, applied to any periodic event.
29 A feature that allows certain hardware subsystems in a computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the CPU; can include disk drive controllers, graphics cards, network cards, and sound cards.
30 Used to implement exterior protocols and interconnect autonomous systems.
31 A barrier between a network and the Internet through which only authorized users can pass; set of security policies to screen incoming and outgoing messages; also used to isolate one part of a network from another.
32 Allows groups to communicate interactively via keyboard and screen display.
33 Number of times a wave repeats a cycle in a one-second period; measured in cycles per second, or hertz.
35 Can hold over seven times as much information as CDs; drives are backward- compatible with CD-ROM drives.
36 Radiation that causes unwanted signals (interference or noise) to be induced in other circuits; also called radio frequency interference or RFI.
38 A lossy compression technique for color images.
39 Easy way of accessing applications with the use of a pointing device, such as a mouse.
40 Network layer protocol provided with TCP/IP; used to report errors and provide other information relevant to IP packet processing.
41 A telephone company that provides connections between local exchanges in different geographic areas.
1 A family of closely related operating systems (COS) that ran on IBM PC type hardware.
2 Physical devices located on a desk or in a server-room rack.
3 Connects many types of networks.
4 A node on a network that translates (converts protocol) from one operating system environment to another.
7 Most commonly used protocol designed to change the packets into electrical signals that can be sent out over the wire.
8 Distortion in a digital signal caused by a shift in timing pulses; can cause data interpretation errors.
9 Application used to transfer a copy of a file from one computer to another computer with one acting as client and the other as server; a login with a user name and password is typically required.
11 A data transfer speed measurement for highspeed networks.
13 A measure of data transfer speed kHz (kilohertz): a unit of measurement of frequency, also known as cycles per second; e.g., one kilohertz equals 1,000 Hz, or cycles per second.
15 Voluntary organization of engineers that creates consensus standards for network wiring and other technologies.
16 Enables both sides to simultaneously send and receive data; could require two separate cables, one in each direction or a single multiplexed cable.
17 A circuit-switched telephone network system designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary copper telephone wires.
18 Data structure that collectively represents the transmission stream (headers, data, and the trailer) and provides the information necessary for the correct delivery of the data.
19 Service that connects a domain name to an IP address.
21 Logical address assigned to every workstation, server, printer, and router on any interconnected network.
22 Bring the users of the network into contact with one another.
26 Primary choice for holding large amounts of information due to its inexpensive cost; must be refreshed or rewritten frequently (about every 386 milliseconds).
27 Large data storage devices permanently mounted in the computer's case.
28 Data packet that is sent over an IP network; associated with the network layer when communication protocol is connectionless.
33 A set of ANSI protocols for sending digital data over fiber optic cable.
34 8-bit character encoding table used by ISM mainframes.
37 A communications protocol used to manage the membership of IP multicast groups.
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