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Information Technology

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1 Standard telephone service, the basic form of residential and small business telephone service.
2 One hertz is one cycle per second; a megahertz is equal to one million cycles per second.
3 Involves re-writing the source and/or destination addresses of IP packets as they pass through a router or firewall; also called network masquerading, native address translation, or IP-masquerading.
4 The capability of a network to provide better service to selected network traffic over various technologies.
7 Hardware adapter that provides communication capabilities; responsible for building, transmitting, receiving, and decoding frames in a LAN environment; serves as the interface between the networked devices and the connecting wires.
9 Process of putting multiple signals on a wire simultaneously.
10 Used in some DOS shells and early versions of Windows; an improvement on the command line but cumbersome when a task requires the submenu of a submenu of a submenu of a menu item.
12 An artificial demarcation point or interface point between communications entities.
13 Security method that filter by IP address; not adequate security for a network.
15 A link-state hierarchical interior gateway protocol (see IGP) for network routing protocol.
17 Brain of the computer system where calculations and decisions are made; also referred to as the CPU.
18 Referred to as the L1 (level 1), an interface between the processor and the cache.
19 Unit of information or computer storage equal to either exactly one million bytes or, in some cases, 1,048,567 bytes, or more rarely, 1,024,000 bytes; not to be confused with Mb, which stands for megabits.
20 A type of database used to manage the devices in a communications network.
21 Port where the bits travel down parallel paths, arriving one byte at a time; can supply more bytes of data per unit time.
24 Unique 6-byte address associated with and coded into each network interface card (NIC); address assignment is controlled by the IEEE.
28 Use a real, shared circuit in the service provider’s backbone.
29 Part of an IP address that is uniquely assigned by one of the ICANN-sanctioned agencies.
30 Converts signals on an Ethernet cable to and from AUI signals.
31 An integrated services digital network (ISDN) configuration, usually intended for large users.
34 Data structures that collectively represent the transmission stream (headers and data); associated with the network layer when the communication protocol is connection-oriented.
36 Process by which the peer-to-peer name used on each conversational level is related to other levels.
37 How the various clients and servers are arranged for purposes of connectivity, performance, and security.
40 Another name for private lines, dedicated lines, or permanent circuits.
42 A computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard.
1 Set of rules used to control the exchange of information that is understood by the transmitter and receivers.
2 Information content to be shared.
5 Transmission, or system that carries the message or data.
6 Sonar concept implemented with the Echo Request and Echo Reply application; basic connectivity test between two TCP/IP network devices.
8 A unit of information storage; not to be confused with MB or megabytes.
9 Allow multiple devices to be wired to a central location, share the same media, and regenerate (repeat) the signal; also referred to as active hubs.
11 Developed to provide a view of the distinct functionalities that are required to implement each protocol layer; defines a complete range of functions that can be achieved with data communications equipment.
12 Sits between the network router and the Internet; talks to the Internet on behalf of a network’s resources, allowing real network addresses to be hidden.
13 Used in a LAN environment; special form of repeater that allow multiple devices to be wired into a central location and share the same media; do not regenerate (repeat) the signal.
14 Digital video format identified by “.mpg” extension after the file name; a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards.
16 The pre-boot sequence for a computer, router, or printer.
17 A telephone exchange that serves a particular business or office.
22 Transitional data communications facilities at which Network Service Providers (NSPs) would exchange traffic, in replacement of the publicly-financed NSFNet Internet backbone; now replaced by modern IXPs.
23 A publicly available network supporting packet-switched data, separate from PSTN.
24 Connects sites in and around a large city.
25 Optimizes the client/server architecture; provides and supports network services such as file services, e-mail, Internet and intranet services, and applications.
26 Network that operates within a small geographic area, usually within a building, office, or department.
27 Hand-held computer with a touch screen.
32 A microcomputer whose price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals.
33 Interface between the application (word processor, spreadsheet, etc.) and the computer hardware.
34 How clients access their mailboxes on the messaging server; usually done in its third version, POP3.
35 A unit of measurement of frequency, also known as cycles per second.
38 Allows applications on separate computers to communicate over a local area network (LAN).
39 Desk space of the computer system; microchips located on the motherboard that hold data and instructions for the CPU (central processing unit).
41 Makes USENET possible; protocol for the distribution, inquiry, retrieval, and posting of news articles using a reliable stream-based transmission of news among the ARPA Internet.
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